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Dendritic cells | Dendritische Zellen | 树突细胞

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樹狀細胞是一種存在於哺乳動物的一種白血球,又称为树突细胞。它存在於血液和暴露於環境中的組織中,如皮膚和鼻子、肺、胃和小腸的上皮組織。它們的作用是調節對當前環境刺激的先天和後天免疫反應。[1]它的其中一個最重要的功能就是將抗原處理後展示給免疫系統的其他白細胞,故是一種抗原提示細胞。樹狀細胞最早於19世紀末被Paul Langerhans發現。[2]但是,英語中的 "dendritic cells"一詞一直到1973年才被Ralph M. Steinman 和 Zanvil A. Cohn兩人創造。

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells and form part of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the surface to other cells of the immune system, thus functioning as antigen-presenting cells.

Dendritic cells are present in small quantities in tissues that are in contact with the external environment, mainly the skin (where a specialized dendritic cell type is called Langerhans cells) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. They can also be found in an immature state in the blood. Once activated, they migrate to the lymphoid tissues where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. At certain development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites, that give the cell its name. However, these do not have any special relation with neurons, which also possess similar appendages. Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled cells, in which case they possess large cytoplasmic ‘veils’ rather than dendrites.

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Dendritische Zellen sind Zellen des Immunsystems, die sich aus Monozyten entwickeln. Ihre Funktion ist die Antigenprozessierung und Antigenpräsentation vorher als fremdartig erkannter und intrazellulär aufgenommener Strukturen wie z.B. Mikroorganismen und deren Bestandteile. Durch Ausschüttung entsprechender Cytokine und Expression bestimmter Zelloberflächen-Rezeptoren beeinflussen sie T-Zellen und verstärken so die spezifische zelluläre Immunabwehr. Ihrem Namen entsprechend haben sie typische Bäumchen-artige Cytoplasma-Ausläufer (lat. dendriticus = „verzweigt“).

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