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cytoplasm/ Zytoplasma/ 细胞质

↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓中文解释↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

细胞质是一种充满于细胞当中的凝胶状物质。它位于在细胞膜内,并包围着细胞核及细胞器(图中800px-Biological_cell_svg的数字11)。它 包含有胞质溶胶及除细胞核外的细胞器。细胞质在细胞内起到“分子液”的作用,使各种细胞器能在其中悬浮及透过脂肪膜聚集一起,负责维持细胞的形状和坚固程度。

细胞质是由离子及可溶的高分子,如碳水化合物、不同的蛋白质,以及大量的核糖核酸所组成。细胞质的水性元件亦称为透明质。它可以是凝胶状的或是液体,取决于环境情况及当时细胞的活动。

不同生物域细胞的细胞质都有着大为不同的特征。在动物界,细胞质占有差不多半个细胞的体积;但在植物界,由于液泡的存在,细胞质则只占有较少的空间。

↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓英文解释↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

The cytoplasm is the contents of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells the cytoplasm contains organelles, such as mitochondria, that are filled with liquid kept separate from the cytoplasm by cell membranes.

The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell. The cytosol is a gel, with a network of fibers dispersed through water. Due to this network of pores and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.

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Als Zytoplasma (auch Cytoplasma) wird der die Zelle ausfüllende Inhalt bezeichnet, der aus dem Zytosol (Zellmedium), dem Zytoskelett und den Organellen, bei Eukaryoten exklusive Zellkern, besteht und von der Plasmamembran eingeschlossen ist. Dadurch können die Zellen unabhängig voneinander mehrere Stoffwechsel durchführen.

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