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Polyethylene glycol|聚乙二醇

聚乙二醇(PEG),也稱為聚(環氧乙烯)(PEO)或聚氧乙烯(POE),是指環氧乙烷的寡聚物或聚合物。這三個名稱現今一般為同義詞,但歷史上聚乙二醇往往是指分子質量低於20,000 g/mol的低聚物和聚合物,PEO是指分子量超過20,000的聚合物,POE則可指任何分子質量的聚合物。

聚乙二醇溶於水、甲醇、苯、二氯甲烷,不溶於乙醚和正己烷。它與疏水性分子結合後的產物可用作非離子表面活性劑。

聚乙二醇可以用於修飾藥物蛋白,以保護藥物分子延長其作用半衰期。

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine. It has also been known as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE), depending on its molecular weight, and under the tradename Carbowax.
Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products.[6] It is the basis of a number of laxatives (e.g., macrogol-containing products such as Movicol and polyethylene glycol 3350, or SoftLax, MiraLAX or GlycoLax). It is the basis of many skin creams, as cetomacrogol, and sexual lubricants, frequently combined with glycerin. Whole bowel irrigation (polyethylene glycol with added electrolytes) is used for bowel preparation before surgery or colonoscopy and drug overdoses. It is sold under the brand names GoLYTELY, NuLytely, GlycoLax, Fortrans, TriLyte, Colyte, Halflytely, MiraLAX, Softlax, ClearLax and MoviPrep. When attached to various protein medications, polyethylene glycol allows a slowed clearance of the carried protein from the blood. This makes for a longer-acting medicinal effect and reduces toxicity, and it allows longer dosing intervals. Examples include PEG-interferon alpha, which is used to treat hepatitis C, and PEG-filgrastim (Neulasta), which is used to treat neutropenia. It has been shown that polyethylene glycol can improve healing of spinal injuries in dogs.[7] One of the earlier findings that polyethylene glycol can aid in nerve repair came from the University of Texas (Krause and Bittner).[8] Polyethylene glycol is commonly used to fuse B-cells with myeloma cells in monoclonal antibody production. PEG has recently been proved to give better results in constipation patients than tegaserod.[9]
Research for new clinical uses
* PEG when labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore has been used in preclinical work as a vascular agent, lymphatic agent, and general tumor-imaging agent by exploiting the Enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) of tumors.[10]
* High-molecular-weight PEG, e.g., PEG 8000, has been shown to be a dietary preventive agent against colorectal cancer in animal models.[11]

The Chemoprevention Database shows it is the most effective agent to suppress chemical carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer prevention in humans has not yet been tested in clinical trials.[12]

* The injection of PEG 2000 into the bloodstream of guinea pigs after spinal cord injury leads to rapid recovery through molecular repair of nerve membranes.[13] The effectiveness of this treatment to prevent paraplegia in humans after an accident is not known yet.
* Research is being done in the use of PEG to mask antigens on red blood cells. Various research institutes have reported that using PEG can mask antigens without damaging the functions and shape of the cell.
* Research is also being done on the use of PEG in the field of gene therapy.

PEG is being used in the repair of motor neurons damaged in crush or laceration incidence in vivo and in vitro. When coupled with melatonin, 75% of damaged sciatic nerves were rendered viable.[14]

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